George of Trebizond

1998/7/17, posted by Rene Zandbergen

Let me further ruin my credentials with a silly theory based on a lot of circumstantial evidence. It's almost too good to be true. According to this theory, the writer of the Voynich Ms is one George of Trebizond. Here are a few reason why, mostly from the very learned book: George of Trebizond, a biography and a study of his rhetoric and logic, John Monfasani, Leiden, Brill, 1976.

Trebizond lived from 1395 to 1472-3. He was originally from Crete but came to N.Italy where he lived for some years (Venice, Padova), and then moved to Rome. He translated many classical Greek texts to Latin (notably Ptolemy's Almagest, which took him less than a year). George was a humanist, though at odds with most of his fellow humanists.

For many years he was secretary to the Pope, which presumably means that he would have been familiar with the diplomatic codes, of the type described by Tranchedino.

George was quite mad, especially when he got older. Here's a short quote from the introduction by Monfasani (whose thesis is that he may not have been all that mad after all):

"[Trebizond] has always been something of an enigma. [...] [he] was a Greek who preferred to write in Latin; a translator of Plato who launched the most vituperative attack on Plato in the Renaissance, and perhaps of all time; a famous humanist and authority on rhetoric who passionately defended medieval scholasticism; and, most paradoxically of all, a very pious Christian and familiar of popes who risked his life to tell Mehmed II, the Moslem conqueror of Constantinople, that he (Mehmed) was the King of Kings and Destined Ruler of the whole world."

Later he says that a psychoanalytical study of Trebizond would seem to be in order but he hasn't the necessary knowledge. Like Roger Bacon, Trebizond got himself thrown into gaol by the clergy, but he managed this feat three times. The second of these was because of his 'libido' and there are letters about a scandal involving the sexagenarian Trebizond and a Venetian girl. The third occasion was because of his suspected treason to Mehmed II.

Trebizond had a firm belief in astrology. He writes that his fated life was controlled by his birth in the sign of Pisces.

Still, Trebizond was an expert scribe and it should be suspected that he could draw better than what we see in the VMs. This is the main reason why he probably has nothing to do with it. Also, it is not clear why he should have done it, nor what is contained in it

Finally though, the mechanism how the VMs would have ended in Prague is clear. Trebizond wrote a highly contested commentary on the Almagest, which was only published after his death (by his son Andreas). There are letters between Tycho Brahe and Taddeus Hajek (one of Rudolph's trustees and host to Dee) that they need to acquire a copy of Trebizond's commentary, lest such an important product of the human mind be lost to posterity. The VMs would have come with it.

This is just the tip of the iceberg. Trebizond was involved in many strange actions and activities, too numerous to describe here.
posted by ぶらたん at 21:14| Comment(0) | 制作者


John Stojko's translation (Letters to God's Eye)

1998/4/20, posted by John Stojko

f2v in Voynich

The Voynich manuscript is written in one language v Ukrainian, according to my decipherment. The alphabet consists of consonants only and is written from left to right. It is written not by one person but by many. Bellow is given original writing in English alphabet and than translated to English language.

I will divide the original writing into 6 section separated by empty spaces. The voynich cipher is printed in Caps letters and the added vowels are in low letters.

1st phrase 5 letter - T W W ZH J = Te Wy WyZHyJe
2nd phrase 7 letter - P N W SCH P W R = PoNoWe SCHo Po WiRy.
3rd ? 11 ? - W S T ZH J W K B Z J = WiSTe BoZHyJ, Wy u oKo
BoZiu (or BoZJu)
4th ? 3 ? - P W R = PoWiRe.
5th ? 4 ? - K B Z R = oKo oBZyRa
6th ? 5 ? - D N ST S = oDNoST Siu. (I use ?iu| to soften

1. Te wy wyzhyje I ponowe scho po wiry. Wiste bozhyj, wy u Oko Boziu powire. Oko obzyra odnost siu.
2. Tupezh ty peshe. Odnowa odnowyly I siu wist powi. Ale wy omane de wistysh. Powi Ori Oko bozhyje.
3. Wy shto pyshe po wiri? Ladno se powily, opowi Kosa i powi Oko Bozia. Popustu se Oko bozhyje.
4. Odnowu powolaw panowi Ori I opowi Oko bozhyje.
5. Te powiru, dnes Oko bozhe zhyje. Popyta se. De odne nashe Oko wire, powilo Oko bozhyje.
6. Oko wiru opowilo po wiry. Powily ta unowyly I pyshu. Puste se Oko bozhyje. Wy shto powire po baju.
7. Oko bozhyje opowist panusi. Se wy shto omynash? Powi ty unowo de po Medu u poru pan bozhyj.
8. Powi to win duma po wiry? Ponowyly, powily I khwalyw Kosu.

(English translation)
1. That you outlive and renew what is according to the believe. The god#s is informing, you will believe in Oko Boziu (baby God). Oko is looking for this unity.
2. You are writing stupidly. Again we renewed and I am telling this news. But you will deceive where you are informing. The God#s Oko will inform Ora.
3. What are you writing in believe? You made beautiful statement, will explain Kosa and Oko Bozia will disclose. Oko of god, this is nonsense (empty saying).
4. Again I am calling to Mr. Ora. Oko of god will explain.
5. That I believe, today Oko of God is alive. The question is this. Where is one of ours Oko#s believe Oko of God told
6. Oko explained religion faithfully. We told than renewed and now I am writing. Oko of God, this is nonsense. Are you believing what you been told?
7. Oko of God will explain to Miss. What are you avoiding? Tell me again, where after Median on time will be Mr. God#s?
8. Tell me that he is thinking what he believes. You renewed, announced and praised Kosa.

1998/4/24, posted by Jorge Stolfi

If I got it right, this is John Stojko's proposed decryption,
from basic EVA to vowel-less old Ukranian:

--- eva2ukr.sed ------------------------------------------
# Basic EVA to Ukrainian, per John Stojko and Karl Kluge
# Strings of "e"s are ambiguous, make a guess:


Let's try this mapping on the first paragraph of page f2v:

1 kooiin cheo pchor otaiin odain chor dair shty
2 kcho kchy sho shol qotsho loeees qoty chor daiin
3 otchy chor lshy chol chody shodain chcthy daiin
4 sho cholo cheor chodaiin

We get


Satiate ye no mete pain eating. To soul ye tied love uniting: do like a wise or

saint. Son, are we to wait the acts, we too? That bum --- if cats are uniting, delay!

Tease Nero on tieing the war -- not thee, not, dear awaited love. In no soiree delay!

I wait on thee, to in mating united lay.

1999/9/8, posted by Mark Perakh

Come on, guys. I was sure the Stoyko's claim was a joke. Is Stoyko serious? Even though it is not very relevant, I was born in the Ukraine and Ukrainian is one of my two mother tongues (the other is Russian). The Khazar empire ceased to exist about the ad 950. Ukrainian language separated from the Old Slavic which was also the precursor of Russian and Belorussian, only a couple of centuries later. Most of the territory which now is Eastern Ukraine was a part of Khazar empire, but since the middle of 10th century became the domain of Scandinavian Rus with the capital in Kiev, built on the spot where earlier existed a Khazar rural hamlet. There no chance whatsoever that VMs was written in Ukrainian and contains a correspondence between some fictititous ruler of Ukraine and a Khazar king. It is a historical nonsense. Sorry for being blunt.
posted by ぶらたん at 11:54| Comment(0) | 解読者



1998/3/1, posted by Karl Kluge

Here is the full frequency data for the transformed text using the mapping from Tiltman structures to individual characters given above:

Vowels identified by Sukhotin's algorithm: I J K E A L B G 4
Line Word
Letter Global Initial Final Initial Final
0 5.84927 0.52506 0.89153 1.54647 21.70076
1 7.56907 0.90692 2.00594 2.49814 15.81762
2 1.87020 0.23866 0.14859 1.14498 7.03303
3 2.68105 0.71599 0.37147 1.44238 7.83527
4 0.06866 0.04773 0.07429 0.05948 0.25404
5 0.26484 0.33413 0.00000 0.17844 0.45461
6 0.00000 0.00000 0.00000 0.00000 0.00000
7 0.00000 0.00000 0.00000 0.00000 0.00000
8 0.00000 0.00000 0.00000 0.00000 0.00000
9 0.00000 0.00000 0.00000 0.00000 0.00000
A 3.48210 5.25060 1.26300 4.90706 1.60449
B 2.89031 4.72554 1.04012 4.32714 1.55101
C 0.39235 0.14320 0.00000 0.75836 0.13371
D 0.12424 0.04773 0.07429 0.14870 0.05348
E 4.78339 10.54893 0.89153 14.98885 1.36382
F 0.05231 0.00000 0.00000 0.16357 0.01337
G 1.77538 5.34606 0.14859 4.72862 0.82899
H 0.15694 0.14320 0.00000 0.46097 0.04011
I 16.53752 16.84964 3.26895 20.66914 11.49886
J 7.42194 10.73986 0.52006 8.28253 3.65022
K 11.84241 19.18854 13.15007 14.92937 15.48335
L 3.28592 11.31265 6.53789 3.58364 1.29696
M 4.51855 3.15036 7.20654 2.24535 1.93876
N 9.12539 6.49165 11.73848 7.83643 2.68753
O 0.24849 0.00000 2.52600 0.04461 0.05348
P 2.39333 0.28640 6.61218 0.65428 0.45461
Q 5.25421 1.24105 20.20802 1.56134 1.39056
R 0.14059 0.00000 0.74294 0.08922 0.02674
S 3.48210 1.24105 9.21248 1.47212 1.23011
T 0.40543 0.19093 1.26300 0.16357 0.20056
U 0.12424 0.04773 0.14859 0.07435 0.09360
V 0.00000 0.00000 0.00000 0.00000 0.00000
W 3.21726 0.28640 9.88113 1.01115 1.31034
X 0.02616 0.00000 0.00000 0.01487 0.00000
Y 0.01635 0.00000 0.07429 0.01487 0.00000
Z 0.00000 0.00000 0.00000 0.00000 0.00000

Entropy 4.00770 3.47030 3.59539 3.65581 3.46832
- ------------------------------------------------------
Digraphs whose max frequency global, line initial, etc. > 2.500000%:
line word
global initial final initial final wf/wi
0E 1.4085 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 6.2592
0I 0.7781 0.0513 0.0000 0.0000 0.0321 3.3754
0N 0.6196 0.0000 0.0899 0.0000 0.0160 2.6217
1E 0.6880 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 2.9985
1I 0.9726 0.1540 0.0000 0.2967 0.5451 2.7691
1K 1.1131 0.1027 0.1799 0.3894 1.6194 2.5397
E0 0.7745 1.0267 0.1799 3.1337 3.2227 0.0164
E2 0.6268 1.3347 0.0000 2.5032 2.6615 0.0000
I0 2.4063 2.4641 0.4496 3.8569 9.6841 0.0164
I1 3.8940 3.0287 0.7194 5.8780 9.2512 0.2622
II 1.0410 0.8727 0.1799 0.3894 0.4489 2.9330
IK 2.3558 2.1561 1.3489 2.9112 5.0024 2.4742
J0 1.6282 1.1807 0.0899 2.1509 6.5416 0.0328
J1 2.1181 2.1047 0.5396 2.6516 5.0505 0.0983
KI 1.4805 5.1848 0.2698 0.9271 0.9139 2.8347
KJ 0.6952 2.8747 0.0000 0.4636 0.2565 1.2125
KP 0.6664 2.0534 2.7878 0.8159 0.2245 0.0655
KQ 2.4675 4.4661 12.8597 4.3019 0.8498 0.1147
KS 1.0807 1.3860 4.2266 2.0026 0.4008 0.2458
KW 0.9474 0.5133 3.9568 2.0026 0.5451 0.0655
LN 0.4431 2.8747 0.3597 0.3894 0.0802 0.0164
NK 1.7543 0.6160 2.9676 1.0013 2.2607 0.4752

h2 3.57014 3.23198 2.96356 3.27572 2.79567 3.47274

Any suggestions on how to proceed with testing of this hypotheis regarding the nature of the encoding (and, more to the point, finding the correct mappings of Voynich character combinations to plaintext characters if this is the type of cipher we're dealing with)?
posted by ぶらたん at 23:09| Comment(0) | テキストの性質

C89 ratio

1998/2/9, posted by Denis Mardle

my remark that implied Herbal B1 and B2 were the same language/hand despite the pretty fit to the quires from Karl's work which could still be valid since I was only looking at the Currier O89 to C89 ratio. This ratio is very good at sorting out sets. For instance Herbal B1 has 23.7% O89 ( 41 to 132 ) and Herbal B2 is 20.0% ( 67 to 269 ). These figures fit into the range for the Stars B sets f104r,f105r,f106r,f107r ( see my later "quires ... " ) which are in the 16-26% range. The f103r and f108r sets have only 4.7%, closer to the Bio - B figure of only 0.5%, but I suspect significantly different. Herbal A is very different again with the ratio at 98.5% ( 270 to 4 ). My conclusion is that neither Herbal B1 nor B2 can go with Bio - B and the O89 to C89 ratio test does not split them. I will accept another statistic to show a B1 to B2 significance, but I need to see the figures. The O89 to C89 ratio ( at 98.5% ) will not split Herbal A sets.
posted by ぶらたん at 22:10| Comment(0) | テキストの性質



1997/11/18, posted by Jorge Stolfi

Although Voynichese is fairly repetitive, there are remarkably few repetitions among this list. Here are all I could find (in EVA encoding):

dokor <f100v.T.1;C> {pharma}
dokor <f101v1.R1.1;C> {pharma}

otarar <f100v.T.2;C> {pharma}
otarar <f101v1.R1.3;C> {pharma}

odor <f100v.M.4;C> {pharma}
odor <f101v1.R2.4;C> {pharma}

olkor <f100v.M.2;C> {pharma}
olkor <f101v1.R2.2;C> {pharma}

okal <f67r2.L;Z> {astro, moon & circles; "sun"?}
okal <f72r2.S.12;K> {zodiac, gemini, stars}{was <f72r2.12A;K>}
okal <f72r2.S.14;K> {zodiac, gemini, stars}{was <f72r2.14A;K>}

okaly <f70v2.S1.3;C> {zodiac, pisces, btw outer stars; K:okala}
okaly <f72r2.S.13;K> {zodiac, gemini, stars}{was <f72r2.13A;K>}
okaly <f72r2.S.21;K> {zodiac, gemini, stars}{was <f72r2.21A;K>}

okary <f89v2.m.1;L> {pharma}
okary <f70v2.S1.17;C> {zodiac, pisces, btw outer stars; K:ykary}

okeey.ary <f72r1.S.4;K> {zodiac, taurus dk, stars}{was <f72r1.04A;K>}
okeey.ary <f72r2.S.15;K> {zodiac, gemini, stars}{was <f72r2.15A;K>}

okshdchas <f89r2.b.1;K> {pharma; L:okan-yorain}{was <f89v.45A;K>}
okshdchas <f89r2.m2.6;L> {pharma}

otaiin.otain <f72r1.S.13;K> {zodiac, taurus dk, stars}{was <f72r1.13A;K>}
otaiin <f71v.S1.6;K> {zodiac, taurus lt, btw outer stars}{was <f71v.11A;K>}

otal.ypsharal <f70v1.S.15;K> {zodiac, aries dk, btw inner stars}{was <f70v1.15A;K>}
otal <f72r2.S.1;K> {zodiac, gemini, stars}{was <f72r2.01A;K>}

otalaiin <f70v1.S.2;K> {zodiac, aries dk, btw outer stars}{was <f70v1.02A;K>}
otalaiin <f71v.S2.3;K> {zodiac, taurus lt, btw inner stars}{was <f71v.03A;K>}

otaldy <f67r1.S.1;C> {astro, moon & circles, circle sectors}
otaldy <f88r.m.1;L> {pharma, plant; K:otaly}
otaldy <f70v2.S1.12;K> {zodiac, pisces, btw outer stars}{was <f70v2.26A;K>}

otaly <f88r.m.1;K> {pharma, plant; L:otaldy}{was <f88r.05A;K>}
otaly <f88r.t.6;L> {pharma, plant}
otaly <f70v1.S.10;K> {zodiac, aries dk, btw inner stars}{was <f70v1.10A;K>}
otaly <f70v2.S1.10;K> {zodiac, pisces, btw outer stars}{was <f70v2.24A;K>}

otear.araydy <f70v1.S.5;K> {zodiac, aries dk, btw outer stars}{was <f70v1.05A;K>}
otear <f100r.t.3;K> {pharma}{was <f100r.17A;K>}

otoram <f88r.b.2;L> {pharma, plant; K:otor.am}
otoram <f88v.m.1;K> {pharma; L:otorad}{was <f88v.17A;K>}

The rarity of repetitions is encouraging. Note that some of them seem to be transcription errors. Also, there seem to be relatively few repetitions spanning different sections.

The first four entries of this list are intriguing: { dokor, otarar, odor, olkor } appear on page f100.v and then again on page f101v1, in slightly different order. Could they be transcription errors?

The thrice-repeated label "okal" was identified by Rene as the name of the Sun in Voynichese.
posted by ぶらたん at 21:21| Comment(0) | 植物



1997/10/31, posted by Rene Zandbergen

> Couldn't the differences in vocabulary and style between the
> astronomical and herbal sections be due to the differing
> subject matter?

Very unlikely. Just remember that Herbal-A and Herbal-B have presumably the same subject-matter, yet are very different in style. Or put the other way around: (ob-smiley omitted)

Theorem 1: if the differences are due to subject-matter, then the pictures do not belong with the text.

And this leads to another important theorem:

Theorem 2: if the differences are due to subject-matter, then the person who collated the pages, bound the Ms and numbered it *could not read* the VMs.

Proof: He went by the pictures.

I would favour the 'different dialect' explanation. Note that subject-matter-related differences may still be identified, but I expect them to be of a smaller scale than the A-vs-B differences.
posted by ぶらたん at 22:12| Comment(0) | テキストの性質



In addition, experts at the McCrone Research Institute in Chicago determined that the ink was not added in a later period. The text was likely written in Northern Italy.
- EarthTimes, 03 Dec 2009

1997/10/30, posted by Dennis Stallings
If the VMs originated in northern Italy, then Latin, an Italian dialect, or a French dialect would be good candidates for the underlying language. And all of these are Romance languages. All that should help with statistical analysis.

Incidentally, even at that time French was the lingua franca of the European upper classes; Marco Polo wrote his story in French.

posted by ぶらたん at 22:31| Comment(0) | 書かれた言語


1997/09/19, posted by Jorge Stolfi

I have asked around for the month names in Occitan (a group of languages from Southern France that includes Provençal, Gascon, etc.) I got the following responses
so far:

Gascon(*) Std. Occit.(*) Toulon(**)
-------------- -------------- -------------
genièr genièr genier
heurèr febrièr febrier
març març març
abriu abril abriéu
mai mai mai
junh junh junh
julhet julhet julh[1]
agost agost august[2]
setémer setembre setembre
octòbre octòbre octóbre
navémer novembre novembre
decémer decembre decembre
posted by ぶらたん at 19:09| Comment(0) | カレンダー


1997/09/18, posted by Rene Zandbergen

The small castle of f86r6 is probably just a fantasy castle, but the components are very much of the style of Piemonte and surroundings, in N.Italy. There are more buildings drawn on this page, but also a volcano which has nothing to do with N.Italy. Now Southern Italy has at least three famous ones....


1999/9/9, posted by Rene Zandbergen

Have you seen pictures of Fenis castle in the Aosta valley, N.Italy? If I recall correctly, this has at least one round tower. The nearby one of St.Pierre even has a church tower which looks like the one in the Voynich MS.

If anything, this castle confirms the N. Italian provenance of the Voynich MS. It does not at all have to represent a real existing castle. These were sometimes used to symbolise 'Earth'.
posted by ぶらたん at 18:29| Comment(0) | 制作場所



Date: Fri, 12 Jul 1996 14:29:22 +0100
From: Michael Roe

Besides the sunflower, the VMS contains many images that also occur in other alcehmenical works:

* On folio 79v the dew (or divine radiance) falls down onto the recumbent female figure. (My guess is that is also an allegory for the chemical process of fractional distillation)

* f68r1 and f68r show the Sun over the Moon and then the Moon over the Sun (Solar dominant over Lunar and Lunar dominant over Solar)

* f66r is the first ``alchemical'' folio after the simple ``herbal'' material at the beginning of the MS. This folio shows a recumbent female figure.
By itself, this could mean almost anything. But the following folios have alchemical images, so it is tempting to also interpret this as an alchemical image, the female/lunar principle about to be transformed by the process which is described in the following folios.

* A four-fold division of the cosmos is a recurring theme in the VMS, and also in alchemical texts. See for example f67v2 and f85-86r2.

* Plants with faces occur in alchemical MSS (e.g. the Rosarium Philosphorum refered to by Rene), and also in the VMS.

* f82v shows what appears to be a rainbow (It's a pity that I havn't got a color reproduction of this ---- it would be useful to check the colours!)

Then there's the dragon (f25v), the serpents (f49r) ...

There are probably many others that I've left out.

The image that should be there (if the alchemical interpretation is correct), but which seems to be missing is the union of the male and female principle.
So maybe it all means something completly different.

Date: Wed, 18 Dec 1996 16:46:33 -0500 (EST)
From: Karl Kluge

My previously announced silly idea: in the centre circle of the there are some objects (reportedly

*My* previously announced idea is that this (mega-foldout on ff.85-86) represents the old alchemic notion of how the four elements earth, air, fire, and water are created from the qualities wet, dry, hot, and cold. The circle in the upper right with the T-O map and little castle would be earth. The structure is then something like this:

fire O -- O -- O earth
|\ | /|
| \ | / |
| \ | / |
hot O--- O -- O cold
| / | \ |
| / | \ |
|/ | \|
air O -- O -- O water
posted by ぶらたん at 21:48| Comment(0) | 錬金術